Morphine Chemical Formula: C17H19N1O3
Morphine is one of the natural plant alkaloids
found in opium and is the prototype opiate, against which other derivatives are
measured in terms of analgesic effects and side effects.
was first obtained from unripe seed
pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) by a German pharmacist, F. W. A.
Sertuerner. Morphine was used as a pain-killer and as a cure for opium
addiction. The mechanism of action of morphine occurs by binding to the
mu-opioid receptor in the brain. It impairs mental and physical performance,
relieves fear and anxiety, and produces euphoria. It also decreases hunger,
inhibits the cough reflex, produces constipation, and usually reduces the sex
drive; in women it may interfere with the menstrual cycle. Morphine is used
medicinally for severe pain, cough suppression, and as an anesthetic.